The Ultimate Guide to Input Output Functions in C

C Statements – Input Output Functions in C

  • There are two types of C Statements.
    1.Input Statements
    2.Output Statements
  • A program‘s “Input” refers to the data provided, and its “Output” refers to the outcome.
  • A function can be imagined as a set of statements aimed at performing a task.
Input FunctionsOutput Functions


getchar() function takes the character and stores it into a variable.


Here getchar() function takes the character and stores it into a variable.


Using putchar() function we can display a single character as output on the monitor.


Here putchar() function is taking a variable ‘ch’ and it sends the content of that variable to the monitor.

Example: Program to accept and display a single character

void main()

Here, main() function from where a c program execution starts.After main() function, we should write { which represents the beginning of the main() function and } hwhich represents ending of the function.

char ch;

Here, ch is a variable declared as char type.So, it is possible to store a single character in ch.


Here,getchar() function waits for input of a single characher. When we enter a character from the keyboard, it reads it and then stores it into the variable ch. Storage is done by the symbol ‘=’ which is called ‘assignment operator’.


Here,putchar() function is displaying the content of ch on the monitor.


This function is useful to accept a string from the keyboard and store it into a variable.


In this statement gets() function will accept a string from the keyboard and stores into the variable set.


This function displays a string on the monitor.


Here,the content of ‘str’ is displayed.

Example: Program to accept and display a name.

void main()
    puts("type your name");

In above program

char str[20];

It represents an array of characters.The name of the array is str. After the array name, we should weite [ and ] braces. So, str[] array can accommodate a maximum of 20 characters.


This function is useful to accept any type of input. It may be a number, a character or a string.

General Format: scanf(“format string”,variable list);

Format string is a string that can represent any of the following format characters shown in table.

Format StringMeaning
%cA Single character
%sA word
%[^\n]A group of words
%iA decimal integer
%dDouble integer number.
%fA floating point number
%lfA long floating point number
%cOctal number
%x or %XHexadecimal Number
%e or %ENumber in specific form(1.2.e5 means 1.2X10 power 5)

As shown below, a comma should separate the variables in scanf().


Here, num1 and num2 are variables of integer types. “%d” represents the format string for accepting decimal integer numbers.


This function is useful to display a character, a string or any numeric value.

General Format:printf(“format string”,variable list);

Backslash codes are also called escape sequences.

\nTo throw the cursor into a new line
\aBeep sound
\tHorizontal tab space
\rWorks like enter button in printing
\\A single \.
Naveed Tawargeri

Hi, I'm Naveed Tawargeri, and I'm the owner and creator of this blog. I'm a Software Developer with a passion for Programming.